1. BUSINESS ETHICS STUDY
Business Ethics in Graphic Design relates to the designer (and design company) doing whatever they can make the client happy. This includes delivering a product they are expecting, designing products with respect and dignity, keeping the general public (the client's clients basically) in mind when designing said products, and remembering the work a designer does (good or bad) reflects upon the client and design company as well as themselves.
2. STYLE STUDY
1. HOW DOES HAVING AN OPEN MIND ENABLE YOU TO DEVELOP STYLE?
Having an open mind allows you to explore more previously executed styles and draw inspiration from them. If you like one particular style, for example, Pop Art, and you only draw inspiration from this, you may never develop your full potential if you don't explore other styles like those used in other art movements, like Cubism, Bauhaus, Art Nouveau and other. Having an open mind enables you to explore different subjects such as political incorrectness, sexuality, gender, anything that would make you come out of your comfort zone.
2. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO HAVE SOME UNIQUE SKILLS AND AESTHETIC ELEMENTS IN YOUR CREATIVE PROCESS?
You need to develop unique skills because in this industry there are a lot of established designers and they have already introduced a lot of new, tricky and different ideas into the world. In order to stand out, get recognised, and ultimately make a lot of money, you need to be one step ahead of every one else. This may involve designing (be it digital or analog) anything different that comes to mind. Elements need to be aesthetically pleasing to attract viewers, they need to be unique to continue to attract viewers and they need to be groundbreaking to get these viewers to draw inspiration from your work.
3. WHY SHOULD YOU RESEARCH ARTISTS AND HOLD SMALL PERSONAL CRITIQUES ON THEIR WORK AT REGULAR INTERVALS?
You need to hold personal critiques because one day you may need to critique works in your job so it would be like a practice run for the real world. Also it shows what has already been done so you can familiarise yourself with the benchmark which has already been set. You also familiarise yourself with the artists, the pieces of work, their style, what is expected of you as a designer/artist and to keep your creative mind active.
4. WHY SHOULD YOU BE AWARE OF YOUR LIKES/DISLIKES AND YOUR STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES?
You need to be aware of these because these all contribute to your own personal style. Often if you like a certain element (colour, shape, etc) you will find you are more likely to incorporate that element somewhere into your work. Usually you embrace your strengths and likes, hopefully you learn how to improve your weaknesses, and learn to tolerate your dislikes, or ignore them.
5. IS STYLE DEFINITIVE OR DOES IT EVOLVE FOR YOU?
I believe style evolves with you as your skills, tastes, surroundings, materials or even just the world you live in, change around you. For example, Pablo Picasso's style changed a great deal over his lifetime - this is evident with his involvement with so many art movements. On the other hand, some artists styles are more definitive - Salvadore Dali, Jackson Pollock, Frida Kahlo. It would depend if you are happy with your style, willing to change it, and what materials were available to you.
6. HOW DOES ATTITUDE AFFECT YOUR STYLE AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL'S PERCEPTION OF YOU?
Your attitude affects the nature and subjects of your projects as well as your follow up comments when critiqued - be it complimentary or not. Two particular styles of attitude which would percieve you negatively be arrogance and submissiveness. An arrogant attitude puts you in a negative position because your subjects may be politically incorrect, rude, offensive and you cannot see that it hurts people. When the people you are hurting are your clients, this is generally your (and the company you work for) loss. You believe your work is the best, when it may not be, and you are not open to criticism. On the other hand, if you are the kind of person who is never happy with your work (even though it is good) gets hurt easily from criticism by taking it all personally - your style may stay the same because your not willing to take advice on board, or it can also become to broad because you have listened to every piece of criticism and changed everything - losing touch with your individuality. Professionals in the industry may feel you aren't strong enough to take the pressure, or be confused with your inconsistent style.
7. WHAT ARE HABITS AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO BE AWARE OF THEM AS A DESIGNER?
Habits are things you consistantly do (or don't do) which may be good or bad. Examples of good habits are good time management, good work ethic, staying healthy and meeting deadlines. Examples of bad habits are unhealthy are unhealthy lifestyle choices, bad sleep patterns and hygiene, bad time management and lacking the ability to realise the importance of deadlines. It is important to be aware of habits - good and bad - so you can learn the good ones and refrain from the bad ones. This may mean a total overhaul of your life and ways of thinking, but if you are committed to the industry and being/becoming a successful designer, it won't matter.
8. WHAT DOES TIME MANAGEMENT OFFER A DESIGNER?
Time management allows a designer to work at a consistent pace without periods of cramming to get something finished and periods of having 'nothing to do'. Being able to manage time efficiently enables room for errors to occur and being able to fix them without too much dramas. With a designer's time managed properly, they are less stressed out which enables them to work at their creative best.
9. HOW DO YOU IMPROVE YOUR TIME MANAGEMENT?
A way to improve time management is to speak with people who have their time issues sorted (they have a set routine for their professional and home life) and get advice. You can also do research and see what other professionals recommend. Then, after you have done your research, the most important part is to put into practice what you have learned, and if it works for you, stick with it.
10. WHAT IS A CONSCIENCE AND HOW DOES IT EFFECT BOTH YOUR STYLE AND YOUR PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE?
A conscience is the thing that you feel deep down if something feels right or wrong. If you are in touch with your conscience you are aware of if something is offensive, morally wrong and politically incorrect. If you aren't, you may be ignorant to these things. Your conscience effects your style because it may prevent or encourage you to try new ideas. Your conscience effects your professional practice by doing jobs which may cause controversy or not. Controversial jobs may help or hider a design studio, most likely the latter.
11. HOW DO GENERALLY ACCEPTED MORALS AND YOUR OWN MORAL STANCE EFFECT YOUR DESIGN AND YOUR PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE?
Some designers and design studios know of what is morally wrong and steer clear of having anything to do with what is wrong. Others are aware of what is wrong but choose to cross the line for the sake of publicity, recognition, notoriety and unfortunately in a lot of cases, develop an 'Ambulance Chaser' reputation. Some are unaware of what is morally wrong and often wonder why their designs are disliked because of it. Your own personal morals effect your designs by limiting the amount of controversial pieces you create. Your morals also effect where you can find work - if you are a person unaware of what is generally accepted morally, and this shows in your designs, you will have a hard time keeping a job in a studio which has strong moral views. Same thing the other way around - if you work in a studio with an 'Ambulance Chaser' reputation and you have a strong awareness of what is right and wrong morally, you would find it challenging and uncomfortable to do designs you think are wrong. You may find it difficult to to stand up for your beliefs at the risk of losing your job.
3. STUDY ON DEADLINES
1. What is a deadline?
A deadline is a point in time which an activity that has been given has to be completed. Deadlines are part if everyday life but are of most importance in a business world.
2. What is involved in making a deadline?
First you need to have a clear deadline - a time and a place. You also need to have a clear outline of what is expected from you at this deadline. What is important in making a deadline is time management. You need to plan your time and resources correctly in order to get the activity done. You also need to be fully aware of the consequences if you fail to meet the deadline.
3. What are the consequences of breaking a deadline?
Consequences can vary from situation to situation. In the design industry, failing to meet a deadline not only involves (and inconveniences) the designer, but also outsiders such as your bosses, printers, distributers, and most importantly, your client. Breaking deadlines can lead to loss of income- for you as you may lose your job; and for the company you work for because they may lose clients; and both you and your company will be deemed unreliable which may prevent new clients in the future.
4. What can you do to better meet deadlines?
I believe it comes down to good time management - knowing how long you have before the deadline and what you need to do (the activity), having a good idea how long the activity will take to complete and having the resources available to complete it.
5. How do you prioritize deadlines?
You prioritize deadlines based on the workload involved and the severity of the consequences if you fail to meet it.
6. How do deadlines alter perceptions of business and individuals?
Ability to meet deadlines means businesses and individuals develop a reputation as being reliable, therefore keeping existing, and gaining new clients. Failure to meet deadlines is reversed - businesses and individuals get a reputation as being unreliable.
7. How do general business deadlines differ from graphic design deadlines?
Graphic design deadlines usually involve other parties further down the track, e.g. printers, and if one person misses a deadline, it effects everyone - for example, an article in a magazine - it affects the designer, the designer's company, the publisher, the printer- everyone down to the readers of the magazine.
4. STUDY ON CULTURAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH DESIGN
1. After reading about the Celts and their history, how has their culture filtered through to modern society both in Australia and the world in general?
The Celtic culture has filtered through to modern society both here in Australia and overseas in many ways. A lot of people in the world are descendants from Celtic people and many feel a connection still with the art and culture. The Celts were a group of people who lived in Britain, Ireland, Spain, and even Germany, France, Italy and Turkey. What brings them all together as a one 'Race' of people are their language, style of art, methods of fighting, and Pagan lifestyle. There are a lot of examples of how celtic culture is being embraced throughout modern times. Celtic knot work and spirals are used nowadays as tattoos, jewelry designs, and clothing. A popular celtic design that has been used for centuries and is still being used today is the 'Claddagh Ring', which is also sometimes called an Irish Wedder, or Irish Wedding Ring. Many people around the world have this ring design as their wedding ring even today. There are still practicing Pagans in modern times as well.
2. Aboriginal art is definitely visual. it is also much more to its artists and people. can you comment in what a cultures art might mean to its people and how it can socially effect itself and other cultural groups.
Aboriginal Art means a lot more than just aesthetics to the Aboriginal people. Their art is used to pass down dreamtime stories from generation to generation. Each pattern, motif, or symbol used in Aboriginal art has a specific meaning. How the symbols are placed in the artwork effects the story which is being told. A culture's art can mean ways of telling stories; identifying one group or family from another (such as Celtic Knot work and Scottish tartans and emblems); and identifying different gods and leaders (Egyptian paintings and carvings). These examples socially effect themselves and other cultures because it determines who they are and what they have done in the past, and shows to other cultures this as well.
3. M.C. Escher's work is highly detailed. Most designers and lay people are highly by his work and dedication to his art. Why?
M.C. Escher's detailed pattern work is impressive to many people because of the time and thought that goes into each piece is astounding. Not only does Escher need to be creative, he needs to be intellectual to make designs that fit together perfectly. His work is impressive, even though they are simple ideas, they are executed in such a way they don't look too simple at all. An example is a work of his that is a simple concept but would be extremely difficult to execute is one with green and white birds. Seems like an easy idea - cover a page with birds. The amazing part is Escher has made the birds the same size and form, and they piece together with no gaps in between. What is most amazing is the fact he has done not one or two of these pieces, but there are nearly sixty on his website which means he puts a lot of effort into a lot of pieces.
4. What is so interesting about art and culture of the past?
Art and culture of the past is important in modern culture because it provides us with inspiration, evidence of past countries and cultures (some which may not exist anymore) and an education on where different people come from. Art is important because in some cases it preserves the history of the culture it derives from. It is also important as a means of communicating - if someone cannot speak or read the communities language, they can normally still understand the symbols in arts used. It is also proof that art itself is not 'new'. It is a way of learning about and comparing cultures in which we live in, to ones from the past. Another interesting aspect is the aesthetics - some cultures art is basic, like early caveman; but some is very detailed, like Islamic art; and different cultures art may be more appealing to some people than others. For example, I am more drawn to Celtic art than I am Aboriginal art. Someone else may like the look of Aboriginal art more than Celtic art, and someone else might like Islamic art more than both Celtic and Aboriginal.
5.Why look backwards to out history when trying to engage in design solutions for modern society? examples..
Artists and designers look back in history for design solutions because there is already so many different styles of work that has been done, there is a huge range of works to use as inspiration. It is easier to draw inspiration from what has already been done, rather than try to create something completely new, because it had more than likely already been done anyway. For example, many tattoos people get these days are based on Celtic knot work and tribal designs originating in the Polynesian triangle (eg. Maori).
6. How has ancient art effected your life? examples..
Ancient art has affected my life by inspiring me artistically, and giving me something nice to look at. The main style of ancient art which effects me the most is Celtic, most possibly because of my English, Irish and Scottish ancestry. I have drawn some designs which some elements are similar to Celtic knot work, where the parts cross over each other and intertwine. I enjoy looking at Celtic art work because it is engaging, creates a sense of awe, and I can appreciate the time and effort gone into making some of the pieces, especially the stone carvings and jewelry.
7.What cultural influences has occured in your life. examples..
As far as ancient cultures go, i cannot think of an instance where i have been influenced in my life. I don't live in a mud hut, hunt animals, or engage in battles with swords or shields. Modern culture is a different story. I have fallen victim to a lot of fads and fashions over the years, including music, toys, gadgets, collectables and clothing. Most of the time it wasn't at the same time as the rest of the world but it happened eventually. For example, when i was in high school there was this band called limp bizkit, they were starting to get really popular and everyone loved them. At this stage i was still catching up on 80's hair bands so i wasn't so keen on them. It wasn't until they released their album 'chocolate starfish and the hot dog flavoured water' that i began to see what all the fuss was about.
5. STUDY ON GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
6. STUDY ON INVESTIGATING THE GD INDUSTRY AND JOBS
Gist & Erdmann, California, USA
They offer advertising solutions, corporate identities, web design, and packaging for 'high technology clients'
Marketing by Design
They do packaging design (foods and other packages), promotional material and collateral design (books, menus, posters)
They specialise in website design, logos, brochures, catalogs, and support and hosting for websites.
Vision Creative Group
This company offers advertising, logo and branding development, collateral materials, web design, email marketing, tv and radio and retail displays.
Design Hovie Studios
They offer brand identity, logos, print and website design.
Logo Design and Marketing
They specialise in corporate identities - logos and websites.
They provide brand design, web design, web development, print (catalogs, collateral design, reports)
Graphic Design Agency, Melbourne
They offer logo and brand development, collateral design, advertising, packaging, corporate presentations and videos, and websites.
They offer general graphic design work, corporate ID, logos, stationary design, brochures and catalogs, websites, flash animation, packaging and flier design.
They do corporate ID, print, brochures, publications and websites.
Graphic Design jobs in Australia.
There are a lot of Graphic Design jobs available in Australia. Most are in capital cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane, and can involve duties such as web development, company branding, advertising, marketing, gaming, packaging, pre-press and much more. Skills required for most jobs are a sound to solid knowledge of the Adobe Creative Suite, the ability to meet strict deadlines, have great communication skills and the ability to produce accurate, relevant artwork/designs. A lot of jobs require a degree (or at least an advanced diploma) in Graphic Design. Most jobs i seen advertised didn't have a salary specified, but the ones i did see ranged from $50,000 to $150,000 per year, and temporary jobs by the hour from $40 to $70 p/h.
7. STUDY ON THE TECHNICAL CHALLENGES OF GRAPHIC DESIGN
1. What are they?
They are the challenges we face in the graphic design industry involving technology we are not used to using. Examples include computer platforms (Mac, PC, etc.), software (Photoshop, InDesign, etc.), machinery (printing press, etc), the use of colour and typography, and working in styles that are different to your own.
2. How do we solve them?
The best way to overcome technical difficulties is education. the more you learn and put into practice what you have learned, the easier problems become until eventually they are problems no more. Ways of learning are doing a course, doing tutorials and asking someone for help.
3. What resources are out there?
There are courses to learn software and how to use computers at educational institutes like Tafe and local colleges. Tutorials can be found online in video or text format, and also in magazines. Students have their teachers available to learn more from if they need it. People working in the design industry have other colleagues and superiors they can ask for help.
4. What is your annual budget to pay for these resources?
My personal budget for this would include Tafe course and related fees, magazines and internet usage, which all up isn't a real lot. Big companies could spend thousands of dollars per year on courses for their employees to be up to speed on the latest technology and their knowledge of software and techniques be up to scratch.
5. How could an ABN benefit your financial approach to the resources?
A business would be able to claim training costs at tax time - this would include courses, internet use and physical resources (eg. magazines).
6. How do the major platforms effect technical approaches to projects?
Each platform has its pro's and con's, and this is evident even when using the same software on both Mac and PC. Some people find using one program on a Mac is a lot easier than on a PC, and vice versa. Sometimes a platform can be used for an application for a specific purpose - for example, web design. Most web design is done on a PC simply because most web users are viewing the graphics on a PC. Hardware also effects a designers choice- a good example is the mouse on a Mac is easier to use in graphics programs than the mouse on a PC. Other components which effect a designers choice (and sometimes provide technical challenges) are sound and graphics cards.
8. STUDY ON CRITICISM AND PSYCHOLOGY OF THE CRITICAL PROCESS
1. HOW DID YOU PERFORM IN CRITIQUING YOUR ASSIGNED MAP?
I believe i performed poorly - how i spoke, the depth of my criticism and my ability to speak openly about how to improve the map. I overcome any issues i had slightly by focusing on Elise while I was talking and blocking out the rest of the class. I think my criticism was fair and thorough, albeit shallow.
2. HOW DID THE STUDENT CRITIQUING YOUR WORK PERFORM?
Michelle spoke easily and clearly about my map and it's positive and negative points. Her critique was mostly fair, although she made some points i disagreed with (my informations bubbles being too hard to understand for the age group. I think she eventually understood my reasons - encouraging interaction between child and adult - after I explained them).
3. HOW HAS THE CRITIQUING PROCESS IMPROVED YOUR MAP?
The process made me see that some text may have been hard to read, so being told this i have been able to change it. It has made me see where things i thought were all right weren't as tight as i thought they were.
4. IS THERE ANY CRITICISM THAT YOU ARE GOING TO IGNORE AND IF SO, WHY?
The criticism about some words in the information bubbles being too hard for children in the target age group. I believe a few long or hard words in children's products encourages them to ask for the help of an adult, and also encourages them to continue to learn new things. Im also not going to change the wording of the information bubbles because they are as simple as I can get them.
5. WHAT ATTITUDE SHOULD YOU TAKE INTO A CRITIQUE? WHY?
You should go into a critique ready to listen to all advice given, all comments made, be ready to explain all reasoning behind your designs, and be ready to accept that not everyone will think the same about your work as you do. There will be parts you think are great but not everyone else does; and bits you don't like and people will point out the good bits and possibly change your mind.
6. HOW CAN YOU PREPARE TO GIVE CRITICISM?
you can have a look at the works you about to critique (which is what we done in class with the maps) and compile a list of what you want to say. You can find out what areas need to be critiqued on (typography, colour, balance, etc.) and decide what points you want to make on these areas. You can also try to relax - getting up in front of other people and giving your own opinion can be difficult for some.
7. ARE THERE SOME GENERAL GUIDELINES IN GRAPHIC DESIGN THAT CAN HELP YOU PROVIDE CRITICISM? WHAT ARE THEY?
Yes, there are a few areas which need to be addressed with a Graphic Design criticism, these include balance, proportion, movement, repetition, variety, colour, typography, consistency, harmony, space, direction, pattern, style, focal point, perspective and relevance. These guidelines can be used to break down your comments in your critique.
WHAT IS CRITICAL THEORY AND HOW DO YOU THINK SOME ASPECTS OF IT RELATE TO GRAPHIC DESIGN?
Critical Theory is a theory "Which can provide the analytical and ethical foundation needed to uncover the structure of underlying social practices and to reveal the possible distortion of social life embodied in them." (Shawn Rosenberg, Professor, Political Science, University of California, Irvine). A theory, in relation to Graphic Design, would be a study of the principles and methods behind a design. A critical theory in relation to Graphic Design would be the in-depth questioning and skilled judgement of the principles and methods behind a design. These theories can be applied to the designer, the design process, the design inspiration and the design's impact on society. Critical theory, as stated by Max Horkheimer (Frankfurt School of Social Science) in an essay in 1937, is "Social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole, in contrast to traditional theory oriented only to understanding or explaining it." (http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/critical-theory/critical-theory-social-theory-.html). This means that critical theory, instead of just understanding something, it breaks it down as to why it can change something as well.
To make things more interesting, there is a second branch of critical theory which is just as important and worthy of mentioning - literary criticism. Literary criticism focuses on aesthetic evaluation and understanding of literature rather than changing or analyzing society. This branch of theory developed in the 1960-70's and didn't relate too much to critical theory until the 1980's when the two branches began relating to similar areas (overlapping). Popular culture and media expansion led to the overlapping of the two branches.
Critical theory links social science theories with philosophical theories - sometimes working well and other times clashing. Philosophy is closely in relation to the sciences, whereas social science is more in relation to culture. To relate these theories to Graphic Design, we can group the theories regarding form, function, proportion, materials and tools used to science, and those regarding aesthetics, emotions, personal taste and consumer engagement to culture. Form would be the shape, size and aesthetic quality of a design. Ways these can be critically analyzed would be to ask the designer if the size was what it should be - not too big or small- if the shape was what is expected normally, and if not, why? Seeing weather everybody, not just the designer (or client) finds the look of the design pleasing. Function relates to the purpose of the design. Criticism on this would be asking weather the design meets the purpose it is intended for. Materials and tools used relates to weather a design as printed, if so, what on; what it was designed in - digital or analog - and weather it is suitable for the design. Aesthetics relates to the look and feel of the design - weather or not it is relelvant to its purpose, if it looks good or bad and what to do to make it look better. Emotions relate to how the viewer reacts to the design - does it make them happy, sad, angry or inspired? Consumer engagement relates to if and why a customer is drawn into a product, what makes them buy that product and why it stands out from the rest.
Critical theory can also relate to the design process. We all have thoughts of something working 'In theory' for a design. For example, 'If I were to apply these brushes to this picture in Photoshop, it would look like this.' If we try what would theoretically work, sometimes it works but sometimes it doesn't. This is when we have to critically evaluate why it hasn't worked. We would look at the filters - maybe they were the wrong ones for the job, maybe they were the right ones but with the wrong settings. We would look at the picture - was it the right style for what you wanted to do? If not, what would we do to get the right one?
Being able to be properly critical of someone elses, or your own, designs is not a given skill, it needs to be learned. Designers have to learn from practice and networking about theories, problems, and solutions. To understand this more we need to know what a critique is, so we know what we have to be critical about. According to German philosopher Immanuel Kant, 'Critique' means "Examining and establishing the limits of the validity of a faculty, type or body of knowledge, especially through taking stock of the limitations imposed by the fundamental, irreducable concepts in use in that knowledge." (http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/critical-theory/critical-theory-social-theory-.html). This basically means in relation to a critique of a design, establishing boundaries of what is expected and identifying anything that is within and outside of these boundaries. Having learned what a critique is, a designer participates in some to practice being critical of other works, and getting theirs critiqued, they learn from other designers critiquing.
The best way critical theory can be applied to graphic design is arguing the theories set out by famous thinkers and relating them to the design industry.
As stated in Isaac Newton's 'First Law of Motion', there is a thing called 'Inertia' which means that without gravity, things going up will go up forever, which is the same thing as 'what goes up must come down' because there is such a thing as gravity. This is proven here on Earth when we throw something up, it comes back down; whereas if we were in space and threw something up it wouldn't come back down because there is no gravitational pull. This theory can be used in the design industry by applying it to designers and trends. A trend will start off and get more and more popular until it has run its natural course and falls, so to speak. After a while it won't be as popular as what it originally was. This can be due to new trends emerging or overuse of this trend - this would be the 'gravity' pulling this trend back down. One example of a trend which has gone up and come back down again is the use of 'sun rays' in designs. They have been used so much in so many designs that they have lost the impact they originally had. The same can be said for designers. Psychadellic poster designer Wes Wilson was at his peak in the late 1960's, when his designs were new and fresh. He is still designing now over 40 years later but i believe he doesn't have the same impact on the industry as what he did in his peak.
These examples could also have applies to it the theory if permancy not existing, only the permanent condition of change as stated by ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus. I agree with this theory that everything is always changing - in life in general and in relation to design (trends, designers, materials, software, platforms, machinery). I don't agree fully with part of the theory where he states that 'The eternal condition of the universe is war and strife between opposites' (http://www.suite101.com/content/heraclitus-fragments-and-greek -philosophy-a261712). Some elements to this comment are true, particularly when applying it to science, but when applying it to humans, im not so sure. Humans with opposing traits can still function together, often complimenting each other. In relation to graphic design, opposites can sometimes work great together, particularly with colours. Black and white always go great together. Colours which are opposite on the colour wheel generally go good together - purple and yellow, red and green, orange and blue. If red and green didn't go well together, causing war and strife between elements, they wouldn't be used so much together, in particular theme colours at Christmas time.
Thomas Malthus, a British scholar who worked mostly on population explosion, had a theory that 'To avoid extinction, a species must continually expand it's population. Although natural resources would inevitably run out for any given species, therefore it is nessesary for some species to die while others survive.' (http://www.suite101.com/content/information-about-philosophers- charles-robert-darwin-a269524). There are ways this theory can relate to graphic design, on different levels. To explain further I will break up the theory into different sections. 'To avoid extinction a species must continually expand it's population' - this is the exact reason we are studying to become graphic designers now - to expand the population of graphic designers. We have to get new graphic designers to replace the ones we will lose in the future - due to retirement, career change, etc. 'It is nessesary for some species to die while others survive'. I bet all the typesetters in the world thought the MAC was a toy when it was first released and didn't realise it was the beginning of the future of design, and the end of all the old traditional methods. As technology evolves, there is not need for the species it replaces to continue to exist. When you buy the latest version of software, there is no reason to still use the old one. This theory can be applied to so much more than just population and design - cars, houses, posessions. I don't believe that graphic design as an industry could ever be forced into extinction - there is too much of a demand for the products this industry provides for it to ever be not needed.